This page will display all public deliverables and documents.
WP 1 - Contrasting market needs, and business case
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Seven case studies have been selected, covering the three business cases considered in the Project: busy routes, underutilized secondary lines, and freight-dominated routes. Slovenia and Turkey provided all three cases, whilst the Romanian case studies were limited to just a secondary line.
All these case studies have in common:
Routes with distinctive features (context or purpose), so these are not arbitrary line sections;
A good availability of technical, financial and operational data, pertaining to the infrastructure and operations.
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The overall purpose of NeTIRail-INFRA is to identify interventions that will reduce costs for maintaining railway lines as well as improve quality of services. More specifically, the idea is to identify interventions that will reduce costs for infrastructure condition monitoring and maintenance at the same time as overall performance is improved. The first task (T1.1) in WP 1 – Contrasting market needs, and business case – was to select case study lines which fit the three line categories set out in the application. These are busy capacity limited passenger railway; under-utilised rural/secondary lines; and a freight dominated route. Seven case study lines were selected that fit these three line categories from countries with industry representation in NeTIRail-INFRA (Romania, Turkey and Slovenia).
The present deliverable concerns task T1.2. The purpose of this task is to start identifying and collecting relevant economic information about the selected case study lines. As noted in the description of work, the data needed for assessing the impact on costs as well as on reliability, capacity and the environment will be in focus for the relevant technical work packages. T1.2 therefore primarily identifies the nature of the interventions addressed in WP2, WP3 and WP4.
Based on this description, the need for economic information and related data is specified. In addition, collection of information about demand (number of users etc. on the case study lines) has been initiated. This is an important statistic for computing user benefits of technical infrastructure improvements.
The collection of demand data has proceeded according to plans. There is, however, still some scope for improving the understanding of the precise interventions that are being considered in each technical work package. This must then be combined with a mutual understanding of the type of information about costs and related information, such as interventions, delays and failures that will be needed in order to implement a comprehensive understanding of the impact of each intervention. Ultimately, such information will be required if we are to demonstrate the overall net benefit of the innovations and thus establish the business case.
The production of D1.2 has generated a strategy for closing this gap: As part of WP1, an example database has been produced that comprises data from another country (Sweden). This template will be used in the next phase of to communicate requirements within the consortium and to identify similar information for each case study line.
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This deliverable should be read in conjunction with D1.1 and D1.2. It outlines the cost modelling research that is being undertaken within WP1, which has two parts:
1. The development of a high level strategic cost model that will draw life cycle cost (LCC) information from the technical work packages (WP2-WP4) and incorporate them within a cost-benefit-analysis (CBA) framework to establish the business case for the relevant innovations.
2. Econometric modelling aimed at pushing forward the research frontier in the area of rail marginal cost estimation.
In addition, qualitative research will be carried out in the area of incentives: that is how different incentive mechanisms (track access agreements, franchise agreements, performance regimes and the wider regulatory and government funding regimes) operate and interact / contradict.
In respect of the high level strategic cost model, the inputs required will derive from the LCC analysis that will be done within WP2-WP4. It is therefore very important that there is close interaction between WP1 and WP2-WP4 to ensure that the required information is provided. The LCC will consider how maintenance practices and asset lives will change as a result of the proposed innovations, such that an estimate of costs, with and without the innovations (and with different assumptions about future traffic and service growth) can be estimated. These cost estimates will be integrated within the overall cost benefit analysis (CBA) framework to establish the business case.
The data gaps established in Deliverable 1.2 will need to be closed and the first step is a session at the Consortium meeting in Istanbul in July 2016. One important consideration at that meeting will be the extent to which the involvement of staff involved in costing / budgeting within the railway organisations might become more closely involved with the project.
In respect of the econometric research, an ambitious research programme has been set out. This will feed into the high level strategic cost modelling by providing a high level cross-check against the bottom-up engineering LCC analysis, and also for scaling the results (e.g. making estimates about how costs change with increased future traffic levels). It also pushes forward the research frontier in a number of areas: (1) cost variability with respect to quality and climate; (2) the impact of aggregation of datasets on marginal cost estimates; (3) and methodological aspects relating to functional form and obtaining improved estimates of cost elasticities and marginal costs1 . Whilst the research is ambitious, datasets have already been collected from non-case study countries (due to lack of data in the case study countries). Preliminary literature reviews have been carried out.
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Task 1.4 (Wider Economic Benefits) in NeTIRail-INFRA is concerned with the development of tools required to estimate the wider economic impacts of the case study rail lines.
Before wider economic impacts can be valued in a cost benefit analysis it is necessary to predict the scale of the impacts on the economy – e.g. in terms of productivity, employment and output. The estimation and valuation of these impacts will form part of the business case for the innovations developed in work packages 2, 3 and 4 and will where possible be incorporated into the decision support tools being developed in WP6.
The purpose of this deliverable is to identify the evaluation studies and the econometric methods to be used in estimating the relationship between historic rail investment and changes in employment.
The results from evaluation studies will be used to support the estimation of the wider economic impacts of the case study lines in WP1.
The literature is developed in the context of changes in productivity and output and chosen supporting models for economic output, productivity and the valuation methods for all the economy impacts will be described in the subsequent deliverable associated with this task.
However, the literature remains fairly embryonic in terms of estimating employment impacts from changes in transport quality. This task addresses this evidence gap and involves the development of a model regarding the relationship between rail infrastructure and employment–focused around the NeTIRail-INFRA interests (busy commuter line, low trafficked line and freight line in the East European countries Slovenia, Romania and Turkey). Having reviewed data availability and historic rail investments, we find there to be insufficient potential evaluation studies in the three case study countries and here we describe the methods used to create a long list including additional historic investments in Sweden and the UK. We then describe how we have whittled these down to a short list of seven evaluation studies covering the three NeTIRail-INFRA line types (busy commuter, low trafficked and freight).
We explain how the effect of these investments on employment will be evaluated using a “Differences in Differences” evaluation method and the reasons underlining this choice of approach.
Finally, we set out the remaining steps of Task 1.4.
WP2 - Tailored track infrastructure, design and maintenance
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The research within this deliverable starts with an overview of the most commonly used methods applied in different European countries for the classification of infrastructure expenditures and the methods used to estimate capital costs. We looked at modalities for classification of infrastructure expenditures, and progressed towards infrastructure expenditures components to monitor infrastructure expenditures and costs and ultimately to the consideration of whole life cycle and whole system costs. These in turn acted as a stepping stone which allowed us to look at RAMS and LCC concepts from two distinct perspectives:
1) a general overlook of the concepts and
2) their detailed application into practice.
Although we observed that both RAMS and LCC are considered powerful tools these are not fully understood hence their development is slower than anticipated. We highlighted the fact that due to the limited number of available databases containing RAMS indicators, progress towards a unified European/ International system is still slow. Furthermore, lacking a clear RAMS programme plan, RAMS analyses are not carried out in all life cycle phases hence, lacking full RAMS-LCC integration. Generally speaking, there is higher propensity to consider inputs deriving from either track tests, meetings and questionnaires and past faults to carry out RAMS analyses which leads to a need to fully systemise RAMS in railway infrastructure.
Undeniably a RAMS and LCC analysis allows the optimisation of the maintenance strategy and allows to shorten decision times regarding maintenance/renewal. Even more interesting is the fact that any RAMS-LCC analysis indicates the consequences of under budgeting maintenance and renewal. This is why we conceptualised our own database starting from cost components to define the database structure and RAMS-LCC integration to define some database relations.
This data analysis task builds on existing rail industry datasets in two ways: (i) Addition of data from NeTIRail-INFRA countries and line types that have not been collected previously, and (ii) Through application of Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping to the failure data to reveal correlations and underlying drivers of cost and maintenance which have not been previously visible.
Based on the data collected and available so far in the database we provide several basic descriptions of the data by presenting the main statistics in terms of costs, failures and traffic volume. Various cost categories, failure type and incidence and, traffic volume information are presented in a comparative manner across case study lines. These first level analyses are accompanied by a correlation analysis performed on an aggregated country level and individual line level.
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In recent years, the amount of traffic that the railways have to carry has increased and this is expected to continue into the future, combined with higher speeds has meant that the duty conditions of rail have become more severe.
In this report are presented the main components and activities of a railroad network. Described are the achievement and installation possibilities which have the highest efficiency and reliability.
Among the variants of existing technologies and solutions in different geographic areas, comparisons are made and those that proved the best results are highlighted.
They address issues regarding the components and technologies used in the three main stages in the life of the railway line: installation, operation and maintenance.
For existing lines, the focus will be on the operational activities and maintenance, while for completely new installations or significant rebuilding are described multiple technologies and technical solutions as, their implementation in these conditions, are possible and necessary.
Information and results from previous projects conducted in this area of application, including the InnoTrack and Mainline Project, will be used.
The three categories of railway lines (busy passenger line, low density rural / secondary line, dominated freight route), need to be analysed in the project, and were identified as real lines. These lines belong to the infrastructure managers involved in the project and will complete a list of case studies.
T2.2 has benefited from the analysis result of T1.1. This task was completed in the fourth month of the project and defined, after a strict selection, a list with seven lines that may be included in the three categories as defined for the purpose of analysis and improvement in the NeTIRail Project. All these lines contain common characteristics that made them candidates for selection.
For Slovenia, SZ selected railway lines were: Divaca - Koper (as freight dominated route); Pivka - Ilirska Bistrica (as low density rural / secondary line); Ljubljana - Kamnik (busy passenger line). For Romania, from RCCF-Brasov, was selected the railway line Bartholomew - Zarnesti (as low density rural/ secondary line). For Turkey, INTADER selected the railway lines: Kayas - Sincan (as busy passenger line) Divrigi - Malatya (as low density rural / secondary line) Malatya - Iskenderun (as freight dominated route).
Existing components and practices used in the operational and maintenance activities for the case studies, covering all the three categories of lines, have been analysed and solutions to improve the current situation have been proposed.
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This report provides a collection of items that will be useful for applying analysis of lean and automotive techniques in railway switch and crossing (S&C). The data used in this deliverable were collected from various source, including real data from IMs, datasheets from infrastructure manufactures, scientific publications (journal, conference and workshop articles, research reports, dissertations, etc.). Some comparable data are organized in the form of figures and tables. Other detailed data in the form of spreadsheet or pictures are also attached with this report.
This report also provides the data regarding S&C characteristics, additional fittings for S&C, fastening system and maintenance tasks for S&C, and some new techniques that may improve the performance of S&C and/or optimize maintenance procedures.
The data collected include:
• Existing lubricants and lubrication techniques for S&C;
• Layout of S&Cs at stations with their detail parameters;
• Debris-proof systems that can prevent avoid or clear the obstruction of S&C;
• S&C fasteners with great integrity;
• Detail procedures for S&C maintenance;
Climatic conditions along NeTIRail-INFRA case study lines that impact S&C performance.
These data will be mainly used in Task 2.3.2 (Application of lean and automotive industry techniques to railway S&C) of the NeTIRail-INFRA project.
WP3 - Tailored overhead line power supply infrastructure
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In this report the existing power supply systems around the world were identified and characterised, but this report focuses mainly on the power supply infrastructures in European countries.
Information is detailed on components and subsystems that are included in the infrastructure of power supply systems.
The technical and quality characteristics for various existing power supply system solutions have been analysed and those that have outstanding performance in terms of reliability, security in operation and safety have been highlighted.
Where applicable, technological solutions are presented as new alternatives to existing systems.
These technologies have led to superior results although these are not yet sufficiently known and promoted. We also present the technical differences between the systems used for high transport density compared to those with low transport density.
T3.1 assumed analysis result of T1.1, related to the list with case study lines selected. This task considered a list with seven lines that could be included in the three categories (busy passenger line, low density rural/secondary line, freight dominated route) defined as purpose for analysis and improvement in the NeTIRail Project. All these lines have in common characteristics that made them candidates for selection: they are routes with distinctive features (context or purpose) and for this reason there are specific characteristics to be studied; they have good availability of technical, financial and operational data, related to the infrastructure and operations.
From the list of seven, five lines are electrified and will be included in a comparative table with components and technologies used, with respect to their power supply system; these power supply systems will be a focal point for improvements in the next tasks. These case study lines are the following:
Divaca – Koper: Freight dominated route (SZ – Slovenia);
Pivka – Ilirska Bistrica: Low density rural / secondary line (SZ – Slovenia);
Kayas – Sincan: Busy passenger line (INTADER - Turkey).
Divrigi – Malatya: Low density rural / secondary line (INTADER - Turkey).
Malatya – Iskenderun: Freight dominated route (INTADER - Turkey).
In the final part of the document, were described the structure of the database, which will contain the types of main components of power supply systems for the case lines taken in consideration, for the future analysis.
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In this task, factors which influence the performance of overhead line power infrastructure including climate-weather changes, materials, interconnections between different components were identified and the influences of the factors on the performance of OHL power structure were divided into two main categories as INTERNAL and EXTERNAL factors.
EXTERNAL factors were explained as the failures due to climatic condition and weather changes, and the climatic factors were explained as climatic factors as: temperatures, wind speed; ice accretion; active and corrosive substances in the air; lighting voltage surges.
Challenges which lead to delay through unreliable performance of overhead line power supplies were identified. The fact that, the effects of climatic conditions are for large areas. Therefore, climatic information were identified at country level also that would be linked to GIS mapping to become the provide evidence of the correlations between climatic factors and electrification failures; maintenance volumes; temporary speed restriction.
INTERNAL factors were addressed as the failures due to the grades and quality of component, electrical design configuration and mechanical parameters. Mechanical, electrical, operational, architectural and environmental requirements as well as life cycle costs affect dimensioning, material and design of the products. Design specifications should be specific to the busy passenger, underutilized rural/secondary line and freight dominated lines, so tailored (need-based) solutions for improving the quality and performances of OHL power infrastructure. Internal factors with categories of materials and components used, is focused on case study lines,which had been chosen within Task 1.1, since a database of all the components and elements used at nationwide is very difficult to obtain but also, the influences of these components are locally, at railway line behavior.
On the basis of data collected including grades of components, the electrical configuration, and mechanical parameters such as the spacing of masts and choice of wire tension and climatic conditions linked to GIS mapping to correlate with failures and speed restrictions for each country to generate understanding of the drivers behind power system failures. This understanding will be used to guide tailoring of the power supply to needs of a specific line, reducing overall costs by identifying the factors really controlling the life of the power supply.
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The research within this deliverable starts with an overview of impact of internal and external factors on overhead line infrastructure. Since the external factors were identified as the environmental factors and the internal factors were identified as grade and quality of components within the Deliverable D3.2, Task3.2.
Climate has considerable impact on the reliability and availability of railway system.
The failures that are mainly caused by variation in climatic condition are characterised as temperature, wind and precipitation. Similarly, mechanical factors of safety which will be used in overhead line design should depend on, to some extent, the importance of reliability and continuity of operation for the line under consideration. In general, the strength of line should be such as to provide against the worst probable weather conditions.
To generate an understanding of the root causes of failures analyses were conducted including influence of mechanism of climate factors and the weather changes against OHL power supply infrastructure as whole system but also as components. Solutions that minimize the negative impact of climate factors on OHL power infrastructure were presented and evaluated.
The quality and the grade of components as well as mechanical requirements and design specification needed for installing equipment for power supply system also took place in the scope of the analysis which made up power supply system against failure rate and the LCC for system. The analyses were conducted also for presenting and evaluating the solutions minimizing the negative impact of internal power supply factors on OHL power infrastructure.
The analysis on the influence of internal and external factors focus on case study lines which were chosen within the Task1.1. The specific data became more of an issue related to environmental factors and internal factors were processed to propose solution minimizing the influences on OHL power infrastructure.
WP4 - Monitoring and Smart Technology
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The deliverable D4.1 represents the first step of achieving the T4.1. It is considered an intermediary progress report outlining the actions taken to identify the optimized technical elements necessary for designing and construction of a vibration data acquisition category system, these vibrations being produced by the interaction between the railroad tracks and wheels rolling units.
In deliverable D4.1 was made a presentation of phenomena in this category, presentation based on studies and research conducted previously in other projects or individual activities.
In the first part it presented the vibrations of the railway as researching domain; are described the characteristics of this phenomenon and the factors that may increase the influence of the size and intensity of the vibration.
Further, are presented an analysis of the mechanism of generating the vibration and noise (this last is considered a vibration component).
Vibration effects are generated by the static axle loads moving along the track and by the dynamic forces which arises in the presence of harmonic or non-harmonic wheels and rails irregularities. From prior researches, most important frequency range of ground vibration, considering human perception, is approximately 5-80 Hz.
On a given location the vibration amplitudes will be strongly influenced by the properties of the ground and the vibration presence must be seen as an interaction between vehicle, track and ground.
Are presented also, the situation of the S&C as special case of vibrations and noise mechanism.
The importance of measuring and analyses of vibrations and rolling noise resides from the Environmental Noise Directive (END). The END requires European member states to produce and publish noise maps on a 5 year cycle.
In next chapter are presented the theory of MEMS sensor, used for converting accelerations into voltage level, and the design of the equipment realized for measuring sessions.
In the last part are described the initial conditions and the ongoing activities on the three sessions of collecting data: Cristianu Station from RCCF-Brasov; AFER Laboratory; Sabareni Station.
During data collection sessions, were acquired and saved in formats that can be further processed, large volumes of data. In deliverable are represented some sequences from these volumes of data, using representation of default interface of portable oscilloscope Pico Scope.
In the next period, these data will be analysed and compared with information already known about the occurrence of the vibration and the noise in the rail. Also, when necessary, further activities will be organized for data collection and testing, especially with the optimized and autonomously equipment, which will be achieved within T4.1.
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One of the objectives of Task 4.3 is the development of an application for Low Cost Smartphones, to estimate ride comfort and to obtain track inputs (e.g. vibration, speed, indoor temperature and rail unit GPS positions etc.). The application is:
• based on smartphone accelerometer and GPS receiver;
• designed for data collection in order to measure ride comfort and track inputs.
The general goal of this task is the development of a smartphone based technology for vehicle and infrastructure monitoring from within passenger vehicles, i.e. crowd-sourced data collection, to increase the regularity and granularity of the monitoring data available.
Expected results of this task are:
(i) Developing an app to gather data from the smartphone GPS sensor and its accelerometer. This will consider conservation of battery life as a priority to ensure viability of the app.
(ii) Developing a gateway to which the data is transmitted using the phone 3G or WiFi connection.
(iii) Developing an interface for querying of available data (e.g. relational database structure).
Research activities carried out under phase 1 of the Task 4.3 focused on the overall design of the Low Cost Smartphone system and the design of each local component to create a dynamic Web services and mobile platform support for data collection in order to measure ride comfort and to obtain the track inputs.
Design activity has mainly focused on the following actions:
• Design of the logical processing components (business logic) of the mobile terminal application;
• Design of the user interface for mobile terminal application;
• Design of the system Web services;
• Design of the database of the system;
• Design of the logical processing components (business logic) of the reporting web interface.
Functional and technical specifications and system architecture are developed by two sub activities namely:
• Design of the specifications involving demarcation of functional and technical requirements of the system in concrete terms (functions, processing, interfaces, etc.);
• Design of the system architecture that includes the reference model, data model consolidated, logical and physical architecture and design of the system warehouse.
WP5 - Societal perspective
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Deliverable 5.1 “Societal and legal effects of transport decision: Stakeholder analysis” identifies the stakeholder groups and the non-economic societal issues influenced by railway innovations, especially by the innovations planned in NeTIRail-INFRA.
The results aim to be complementary to the ones reached in WP1, which concentrates on economic aspects. The results of WP1 and WP5 will be integrated in D5.3 “Balancing societal effects and costbenefit of different infrastructure decisions”.
Section 1 of this deliverable introduces the topic and presents the structure of the deliverable. Section 2 identifies stakeholders and stakes. In NeTIRail-INFRA WP5 the following stakeholder groups are individuated as relevant: residents, employees, passengers and future generations, while the stakes at play include safety, health/environment, employment and accessibility.
Section 3 introduces the framework to assess the non-economic social impact of railway innovations, presenting theories and values that can serve this scope.
Section 4 focuses on the NeTIRail-INFRA planned innovations and on the case-study lines. It describes the lines and the surrounding areas highlighting socially relevant aspects and discusses how the planned innovations might impact on the stakeholder categories identified above.
The analysis conducted in sections 2-4 shows that the stakeholder category “passengers” and the stake “accessibility” are the most relevant for NeTIRail-INFRA WP5. Accessibility appears to be strictly connected with reliability, which is at the centre of the analysis carried out in WP1, thus offering a good basis for the integration of the results of WP1 and WP5 to be realised in D5.3.
Section 5 presents the design for the on-train survey with passengers to be carried out in the next months. The questionnaires are designed to investigate passengers’ needs and perceptions in the areas that will be affected by the planned innovations.
Section 6 presents the next steps of the work in WP5.
WP6 - Evaluation and decision support tools
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The confidentiality policy and agreements dealt with by the present document are specific to certain project tasks under Work Package 6, “Evaluation and decision support tools” the data for which this agreement pertains to is end-user data and source code to demonstrate the decision support Tools and in itself this data will not form part of the deliverables for the NeTIRail Project, but will allow the demonstration of the decision support tools.
All other policies and agreements (e.g. consortium agreement) remain in force, if not modified by the present document.
WP7 - Dissemination, training needs and influence on guidelines and standards
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NeTIRail-INFRA Newsletter Issue1
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